What is the research evidence?
Aqueous sodium hydroxide 0. Aqueous chloramine T solution 2.
Solid chloramine T is not stable, and fresh supplies should be obtained frequently. Stir 6 g of barbituric acid not diethyl barbituric acid, see section 6.
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Dilute the resulting solution to ml with purified water. This solution must be freshly prepared. Dissolve 50 mg of potassium cyanide in ml of aqueous sodium hydroxide 0.
Take care when using concentrated cyanide solutions. Label seven microdiffusion cells a to g and add the reagents shown in Table 25 to the outer wells, reagent 5 dilute sulfuric acid being placed at the opposite side of the well to the others.
Add 2 ml of sodium hydroxide solution to each inner well, seal the cells with silicone grease, carefully mix the contents of the outer wells and incubate at room temperature for 4 hours. Add the following reagents sequentially and shake to mix: Allow to stand for 10 minutes at room temperature.
Measure the absorbance at nm of each solution against the purified water blank section 4. Construct a calibration graph using the results obtained from the standard cyanide solutions and calculate the cyanide concentration in the sample.
Clinical interpretation Acute cyanide poisoning is characterized by ataxia, headache, anxiety, dyspnoea, confusion, coma, collapse, metabolic acidosis, pulmonary oedema and respiratory arrest. Cyanosis may not be present. Supportive treatment includes the administration of oxygen.
A number of antidotes have been used, including dicobalt edetate, hydroxocobalamin, sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate. The qualitative test described above has insufficient sensitivity to detect these concentrations and should only be used for stomach contents and scene residues.
Quantitative cyanide measurements have little immediate relevance to the treatment of acute poisoning since, to have any hope of success, therapy must be commenced as soon as possible.
Cyanide may also be present in the blood of fire victims owing to inhalation of hydrogen cyanide from the partial combustion of wool, silk and synthetic polymers such as polyurethanes and polyacrylonitriles.
In such cases, blood cyanide concentrations may range from 0. Carbon monoxide is usually also present. Blood cyanide concentrations in heavy cigarette smokers may be as high as 0.
Dapsone is metabolized to monoacetyldapsone, which also occurs in plasma, and to a variety of other products which are largely excreted in urine. Enterohepatic recirculation also occurs. In an adult, death may ensue days after the ingestion of 1.
The qualitative test described below can be used to give an estimate of the plasma dapsone concentration, if used with the appropriate standard solutions. Qualitative test Applicable to plasma or serum 0. Stopper the tube, vortex-mix for 30 seconds and centrifuge for 5 minutes.
Discard the upper, aqueous layer, transfer 5 ml of the chloroform extract to a second tube and evaporate to dryness under a stream of compressed air or nitrogen.
Spot extracts of the standard dapsone solutions on adjacent columns on the plate. Develop the chromatogram cm run with chloroform: Remove the plate, allow to dry and inspect under ultraviolet light nm.
Results Estimate the dapsone concentration in the sample by comparison with the results from the standard solutions, hRf values: Clinical interpretation Ingestion of dapsone may cause anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, tinnitus and blurred vision, with dizziness, agitation, coma and convulsions in severe cases.
Haemolytic anaemia, methaemoglobinaemia, haematuria, jaundice and acute renal failure are further complications. Repeat-dose oral activated charcoal is probably the most effective method of treatment, but methylene blue and exchange transfusion may be needed to treat methaemoglobinaemia and haemolytic anaemia, respectively.
Dextropropoxyphene is extensively metabolized to N-desmethyldextropropoxyphene nordextropropoxyphenewhich is the principal urinary metabolite. There is no simple qualitative test for dextropropoxyphene, but this compound and its metabolites can be detected and identified by thin-layer chromatography of a basic solvent extract of urine see section 5.
Clinical interpretation Acute overdosage with dextropropoxyphene gives rise to pin-point pupils, hypotension, hypothermia, coma, pulmonary oedema, convulsions and cardiac arrhythmias.Senate Revision Amendment. In the analysis of sections under this chapter heading, a new item, " Applicability to Canal Zone.", was inserted by Senate amendment, to follow underneath item 13, inasmuch as a new section 14, with such a catchline, was inserted, by .
Then-Director of National Intelligence James Clapper (right) talks with President Barack Obama in the Oval Office, with John Brennan and other national security aides present. agent is the central focus of principal agent theory. The decisions made by the principal that structure the agent’s incentives to take various ac-tions constitute a contract, in the language of principal-agent theory, and principal-agent theory is often taken as a speciﬁc area of contract theory more generally (Bolton and Dewatripont ).
Improving the Democratic Accountability of EU Intelligence The word accountability entails a principal–agent relationship, as it describes principal.
Hence, democratic accountability implies that those who exercise state authority (agents) are accountable to the people (principal).
This commentary points to the poor state of empirical measures of the quality of states, that is, executive branches and their bureaucracies. Much of the problem is conceptual, as there is very little agreement on what constitutes high‐quality government.
accountability primarily as principal-agent relationships involving policies and party programs in the In the global comparison of democracies, Investigating Democratic Accountability Relations.
Opportunities and Pitfalls.