Injection administration

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Injection administration

Ketamine Injection Description Ketamine hydrochloride injection, USP is a nonbarbiturate general anesthetic chemically designed dl 2- 0-chlorophenyl methylamino cyclohexanone hydrochloride. It is formulated as a slightly acid pH 3. Ketamine Injection - Clinical Pharmacology Ketamine hydrochloride injection is a rapid-acting general anesthetic producing an anesthetic state characterized by profound analgesia, normal pharyngeal-laryngeal reflexes, normal or slightly enhanced skeletal muscle tone, cardiovascular and respiratory stimulation, and occasionally a transient and minimal respiratory depression.

The mechanism of action is primarily due to antagonism of N-methyl-D-aspartate NMDA receptors in the central nervous system. A patent airway is maintained partly by virtue of unimpaired pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes.

The biotransformation of ketamine hydrochloride Injection administration includes N-dealkylation metabolite Ihydroxylation of the cyclohexone ring metabolites III and IVconjugation with glucuronic acid and dehydration of the hydroxylated metabolites to form the cyclohexene derivative metabolite II.

Following intravenous administration, the ketamine concentration has an initial slope alpha phase lasting about 45 minutes with a half-life of 10 to 15 minutes. This first phase correspondence clinically to the anesthetic effect of the drug.

The anesthetic action is terminated by a combination of redistribution from the CNS to slower equilibrating peripheral tissues and by hepatic biotransformation to metabolite I. The later half-life of ketamine beta phase is 2.

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It may selectively depress the thalamoneocortical system before significantly obtunding the more ancient cerebral centers and pathways reticular-activating and limbic systems.

Elevation of blood pressure begins shortly after injection, reaches a maximum within a few minutes and usually returns to preanesthetic values within 15 minutes after injection. Ketamine has a wide margin of safety; several instances of unintentional administration of overdoses of ketamine hydrochloride injection up to ten times that usually required have been followed by prolonged but complete recovery.

Ketamine hydrochloride injection has been studied in over 12, operative and diagnostic procedures, involving over 10, patients from separate studies. During the course of these studies ketamine hydrochloride injection was administered as the sole agent, as induction for other general agents, or to supplement low-potency agents.

Specific areas of application have included the following: See also Precaution concerning increased intracranial pressure. Indications and Usage for Ketamine Injection Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic and surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation.

Ketamine hydrochloride injection is best suited for short procedures but it can be used, with additional doses, for longer procedures.

Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated for the induction of anesthesia prior to the administration of other general anesthetic agents. Ketamine hydrochloride injection is indicated to supplement low-potency agents, such as nitrous oxide.

Contraindications Ketamine hydrochloride is contraindicated in those in whom a significant elevation of blood pressure would constitute a serious hazard and in those who have shown hypersensitivity to the drug. Warnings Cardiac function should be continually monitored during the procedure in patients found to have hypertension or cardiac decompensation.

Postoperative confusional states may occur during the recovery period.

Injection administration

Respiratory depression may occur with overdosage or too rapid a rate of administration of ketamine hydrochloride injection, in which case supportive ventilation should be employed.

Mechanical support of respiration is preferred to administration of analeptics. The clinical significance of these findings is not clear. However, based on the available data, the window of vulnerability to these changes is believed to correlate with exposures in the third trimester of gestation through the first several months of life, but may extend out to approximately three years of age in humans.

Injection administration

Some published studies in children suggest that similar deficits may occur after repeated or prolonged exposures to anesthetic agents early in life and may result in adverse cognitive or behavioral effects.

Anesthetic and sedation drugs are a necessary part of the care of children needing surgery, other procedures, or tests that cannot be delayed, and no specific medications have been shown to be safer than any other. Decisions regarding the timing of any elective procedures requiring anesthesia should take into consideration the benefits of the procedure weighed against the potential risks.

Ketamine hydrochloride injection should be used by or under the direction of physicians experienced in administering general anesthetics and in maintenance of an airway and in the control of respiration. Because pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes are usually active, ketamine hydrochloride injection should not be used alone in surgery or diagnostic procedures of the pharynx, larynx, or bronchial tree.

Mechanical stimulation of the pharynx should be avoided, whenever possible, if ketamine hydrochloride injection is used alone.

Muscle relaxants, with proper attention to respiration, may be required in both of these instances.Adolescents and adults. The deltoid muscle is the recommended site for IM vaccination in adolescents and adults (refer to Figure in Identifying the injection site). The anterolateral thigh can also be used in older children and adults (refer to Figure in Identifying the injection site).However, it is important to administer the least reactogenic vaccine in this muscle.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE: DIPROFOS Suspension is indicated for the treat-ment of acute and chronic corticosteroidresponsive disorders.

Corticosteroid hormone therapy is an. These Frequently Asked Questions summarize inquiries received by CDC from healthcare personnel regarding safe use of needles, syringes, and injectable medications in patient care settings.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE: DIPROFOS Suspension is indicated for the treat-ment of acute and chronic corticosteroidresponsive disorders. Corticosteroid hormone therapy is an.

Ketamine hydrochloride injection, USP is a nonbarbiturate general anesthetic chemically designed dl 2-(0-chlorophenyl)(methylamino) cyclohexanone hydrochloride. It is formulated as a slightly acid (pH to ) sterile solution for intravenous or intramuscular injection in concentrations containing the equivalent of either 10 mg, 50 mg or mg ketamine base per milliliter and contains.

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